I believe that it has. Why? Well, there are a number of reasons that depression is a catch-all diagnosis. One certainly is the influence of the pharmaceutical industry given that billions of dollars are spent on anti-depressants each year. Also, doctors who are not mental health professionals (like GP’s) are prescribing anti-depressants if their patients are “depressed”.
Unfortunately, sometimes depression is not accurate. Many times when people say “I’m feeling depressed” they are really expressing that they are feeling emotional pain. Sometimes emotional pain is normal, sometimes a great deal of emotional pain is not normal and becomes problematic. When someone is feeling too much emotionally, it is not depression.
Depression is usually a problem when someone is feeling a strong lack of emotions – causing a lack of interest in the usual activities (including sex) that once gave us pleasure. Although many configurations of “depression” exist (because it is a non-specific term nowadays), the configuration in which one lacks emotions is alexythimia, although if one lives without pleasure it’s called anhedonia. I suspect that most people, when they describe being “depressed” are really describing a combination of anhedonia (where they can’t enjoy anything anymore) and social anxiety.
As I said above, another configuration that is referred to as “depression” is when the emotional pain becomes too overwhelming. In this case the person is feeling too much and would possibly beg for anhedonia because, while the pleasure would not be present, at least the pain would go away. I think that BPD probably involves more of this kind of “depression” than other disorders. The constant emotional pain leads people to doing anything to stop it (thus, this site’s name), including substance abuse, sexual promiscuity, risk-taking, self-injury and other seemingly self-defeating behaviors.
How can this be explained? How can someone be in such emotional pain all the time? One explanation comes from the study of u-opiods in the brain. A recent study by Stanley and Siever showed that people with BPD have too few u-opiods (the precursor for natural pain-killing neuro-chemicals) AND have over-active u-opiod receptors. This combination provides a baseline of pain and, when opiods are added, the brain feasts on these pain-killing substances with the over-active receptors. This is why some people with BPD can ingest large quantities of pain killers to seemingly little effect (or less effect than those without the disorder). I have heard people with BPD say they only feel “normal” while taking pain killers.
So, the question here is two-fold: First, are anti-depressants an appropriate treatment for emotional pain that is not really “depression”? And secondly, if not, what is? Low-dose pain-killers?